The gene editing technique CRISPR can heal can also resurrect extinct species?
Original Title: A CRISPR Future: Five Ways Gene Editing Will Transform Our World
Netease science and technology news 1 October 31 message, according to Futurism reported that in the past few years, the CRISPR always occupy the media headlines. Experts predict that this gene-editing technologies that will change the earth, change our society and even around the creature. The other he used genetic engineering tools, the CRISPR(also referred to as CRISPR-Cas9)is more accurate, cheap, easy to use, and very powerful. p>
CRISPR is in the 20th century the early 90’s was found, and in 7 years after the initial used for the biochemical experiments, and thereafter quickly became the human biology, agriculture, Microbiology and other fields of researchers in the most popular gene-editing tools. Scientists have also in exploring how to use CRISPR to change the world in the early stages. Of course, change the DNA, life itself, source of ability also brings many ethical questions and concerns. In view of this, here are some of this revolutionary technology is the most exciting application, and may slow or stop their play to their full potential obstacle. p>
1. CRISPR can correct disease-causing gene error
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM)is a heart disease in the world every 500 people approximately 1 people sick. This disease is the onset of seasonal people feel miserable, and often fatal. Some of the dominant gene mutation will cause the heart tissue to harden, which may lead to chest pain, weakness, and more serious when can appear even cardiac arrest. Thanks to recent medical advances, the HCM patient, the average life expectancy close to the average person, but if left untreated, will lead to a life-threatening situation. p>
but in the future, we may be able through gene editing to completely cure this disease. In 2017, summer, USA Oregon health and Science University, scientists have used CRISPR to remove a human embryo in a defective gene. The results are exciting: in fertilization after 18 hours using the CRISPR-Cas9 technologies, 54 embryo, there are 36 did not show mutations(almost no development of this disease)signs, and 13 embryos just part of the mutation(genetic HCM probability of 50 percent). p>
The non-target gene mutations and chimeras(only a few cells change, this means that a small portion of human genetic variation)exist only in 54 embryos in the 13 possession. In order to further reduce the portion of the cell is changed the possibility, the researchers conducted another experiment, they in fertilized directly on the embryo in the same gene were corrected. They found that only one embryo presence of a non-target gene mutations and chimeras. This is an impressive result, so this study than similar studies more efficient. p>
The study’s first author, Oregon health and Science University researcher Xiao carat·mitalipov（Shoukhrat Mitalipov in a press conference, said:“by using this technology, we may mitigate this genetic disease on the family and the whole human burden.” In embryonic development the early stages of capturing the mutation, can reduce or even eliminate the patient’s life post treatment needs. p>
although some stem cell scientists questioned this dozens of mutations whether it is repair, but this study does help scientists better understand the CRISPR effect. In addition, the HCM study co-author one of The has expressed interest in the same technology applied to increase the risk of breast cancer-specific gene mutations(BRCA1 and brca2). p>
that is to say, scientists know about changing human embryo genetic code might produce unexpected consequences. If CRISPR in the wrong place to make a change, noInadvertently change or remove the health of the gene? This patient has what effect? In the world in some places, scientists can to a large extent not affected by the shackles of human embryos for the experiment. But in the United States, Canada or the UK, is not the case. p>
in the United States, the food and Drug Administration(FDA)does not currently consider the use of public funds to study those that can be inherited genes(Oregon researchers study is not to implant is performed, and research is privately funded). In Canada, the editing can be passed to offspring genes is a crime, the maximum penalty is 10 years imprisonment. At the same time, the British class fertilization and embryo authority in 2016 authorized London-a team of scientists, allowing them to edit human embryonic genes. British scientists hope that this will set a precedent for future applications to open doors. p>
2. CRISPR can eliminate disease-causing microorganisms.
although HIV treatment has the virus from the deadly killer becomes a threat to health, but scientists have yet to find a cure. This situation may be with the CRISPR technology advances and changes. In 2017, the Chinese research team by copying a valid stop the virus from entering the cells of the mutation, successfully enhanced the mice for HIV resistance. Currently, scientists only conducted on animals of these experiments, but there is reason to believe that the same method is also applicable to humans. HIV drug resistance mutations occur in a fraction of the people. Through the use of CRISPR Introducing mutations into human stem cells, researchers can in the future significantly enhance the human AIDS resistance. p>
another item in the China of the gene editing test will be in 2018, 7 month, scientists will attempt to use CRISPR to the destruction of human papilloma virus(HPV)genes. This virus has been proven to cause cervical cancer tumor growth. p>
in a slightly different method, North Carolina scientists use CRISPR to design phage, i.e. bacterial infection and replicate itself the virus to reach to kill harmful bacteria purpose. Since the 20th century, 20 years since the phage have been used in clinical trials to treat bacterial infections. However, from the natural to harvest them is very difficult, because there was a lack of understanding, leading to results of unpredictable and antibiotics market is growing so that the phage becomes unpopular. Even today, still some researchers worry, large number of phage is immersed will elicit an immune response, or lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria for the phage to produce drug resistance. p>
although human trials have not yet begun, but researchers to use CRISPR to design phage optimistic, because they are a proven, safe treatment bacterial infections methods. In fact, in 2017 an experiment, the researchers used CRISPR engineered phage to rescue the BE antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection of the mouse life. p>
3. CRISPR can resurrect extinct species.
in 2017, 2 month, Harvard geneticist George Church George Church in the United States for the advancement of Science Association AAAS annual conference, published a surprising statement. He claimed that their team may be in 2 years bred an elephant-mammoth hybrid embryos. Church wants to resurrect woolly mammoth is able to control global warming, he said:“mammoths may help the tundra from snow thaw, let the cold air release out of it.” p>
Church and his team hope to use the CRISPR will be the Asian elephant(may be the salvation of endangered species)and the woolly mammoth’s genetic material to combine. The latter sample is from Siberia found frozen mammoth DNA extracts. By the mammoth genome is added to the Asian elephant, eventually the organism will have a mammoth of a common characteristic, as long wool, in the cold climate conditions can be used as insulation material. According to “new scientist” magazine reported that the ultimate goal is to be that hybrid embryos are implanted into an elephant’s body, and make its full growth. p>
In this work the prospects are very gratifying, but many experts believe the Church’s schedule a bit too optimistic. Even researchersBred hybrid embryos, but in the artificial womb growth will be another need to overcome obstacles. Of course, the Church laboratory has the ability to use the artificial womb to nurture the mice embryos. But this does not guarantee that we will in the next few years to witness the woolly mammoth was born. p>
4. CRISPR can create more healthy new food
CRISPR gene editing technology in agricultural research has been proven very promising, from the New York Cold Spring Harbor laboratory scientists use the tool to improve tomato yield. This laboratory developed a method to edit the decision to tomato size, branching structure of the gene, and eventually decided to plant the shape, to get more harvest. Chief researcher, Cold Spring Harbor laboratory Zachary Lippman, Professor in the press conference, said:“Now, each feature can be like a light switch as the control. We can now use the native DNA, and enhance the natural provide of things, we believe that this can help break the yield barriers.” p>
In order to satisfy the hunger of the world demand, high-yielding crop is just a start, scientists hope CRISPR can also help genetically modified crops to get rid of tarnish. In 2016, the agricultural science and Technology Company DuPont Pioneer released a new variety of corn, because the researchers changed its genes, so technically, it’s not genetically modified crops. p>
genetically modified crops and genetically edited crops the difference is quite simple. Traditional transgenic crops by foreign DNA sequences inserted into the crops genome, the traits or characteristics passed to the next organism. And gene editing than this method is more precise: it is the crop’s own genome in a specific location of the gene for accurate change, often destroy some of the gene, or alter their position, these are not relates to the introduction of foreign DNA. p>
although genetically modified crops to continue in the consumer in the dispute, but DuPont Pioneer and other companies want to genetically edited food is better accepted. Genetically modified food in the United States market already exists for several decades, scientists have not found any health risks, although the transgenic crops of the largest supporters also admit that scientists still do not know all of the long-term risk. CRISPR editing of the crop. Of course, scientists will continue to test and evaluate these crops to ensure there are no unanticipated side effects, but the technology of the early work the effect is very good. Eventually, the CRISPR editing of crops may be flooded the global market. p>
DuPont Pioneer company hopes that by 2020 its“waxy”gene editing maize push to the US market. After gene editing the mushrooms have bypassed the United States Department of Agriculture provisions, because it does not contain from the virus or bacteria of the foreign DNA, become the first to get the approval of the CRISPR editing crop. Sweden has announced it will pair with the transgenic crop is different CRISPR to edit genes in crops to classify and manage, but the European Commission has not yet decided its position. p>
5. CRISPR may be the eradication of the planet’s most dangerous pests.
like CRISPR such gene editing technology can be directed against infectious diseases, but some researchers have decided through elimination of pathways to slow the spread of disease. University of California, Riverside scientists have bred a mosquito, this Mosquito for CRISPR particularly sensitive to changes, which allow scientists unprecedented control over the organisms to their offspring characteristics. The result: by changing the is responsible for eyes, wings, and cuticle development of the gene, creating a yellow, three eye, no wing of a mosquito. p>
by interfering with the mosquito genes in a plurality of positions of the target gene, the research team is testing a“gene drive”systems to spread these inhibitory properties. Gene drive is a way to ensure genetic traits genetic down method. By weakening the mosquito’s flight ability and vision, the riverside team hopes to greatly reduce it in humans in the spread of dangerous infectious diseases, e.g. dengue fever and yellow���Disease. p>
other researchers by interfering with the mosquito’s breeding way to destroy the mosquitoes. Imperial College London researchers have used CRISPR to study malaria-carrying mosquitoes of the female reproductive manner, by a gene drive system to affect female infertility characteristics, thus making it more likely to be genetic down. p>
but the interference of the mosquito population might bring unpredictable consequences. The eradication of a species, even one that looks not much ecological value of the species, but also will destroy the ecosystem of cautious balance. This may bring disastrous consequences, such as destruction of food webs or increased malaria and other diseases may be caused by the different species to spread the risk. p>
CRISPR in the future.
The current scientific progress shows that CRISPR is not only an extremely versatile technology, it also proved to be accurate, and the use of more security. But it still has a lot of progress in space, we are only just beginning to see like CRISPR-Cas9 such genome editing tools to the full potential. In our use of gene editing food to meet human needs, the eradication of genetic diseases or get extinct species resurrected in the process, technical and ethical obstacles still exist, but we still want to follow this direction. （Little）
Published at Mon, 02 Feb 2018 23:09:36 +0000