Posted by on February 5, 2018 4:05 am
Categories: Baidu

Source: CRISPR future:five gene editing will change the world

Sina science and technology news Beijing Time 2 June 5 message, according to foreign media reports, in the past few years, the CRISPR is the scientific community familiar with one of the gene editing technology, has been dominated by News Media headlines. Currently, experts predict that this gene-editing technologies will change our planet, to change our society and around the creature. With other gene editing tools compared to CRISPR, more professional terminology is the CRISPR-Cas9 very accurate, inexpensive, easy to use and very powerful.

the CRISPR technology of the future

it is reported that CRISPR technology is in the early 90’s found, and in 7 years after the initial used for the biochemical experiments, is rapidly becoming of human biology, agriculture, and Microbiology and other areas of the most popular gene-editing tools.

scientists are also exploring how to use CRISPR technology to make the world a better place in the early stages, of course, change the DNA of the capabilities of life itself, the source code will bring many ethical questions and some concerns. There are some exciting scientific applications, how to more effectively use this revolutionary technology, as well as possibly slow or prevent these technologies to their full potential obstacle.

1, The CRISPR technology can correct disease-causing gene error

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM is a heart disease, the impact of the global 0. 2%of the population, the patient population will be subjected to great pain, and the disease will be fatal. Some of the dominant gene mutation causes the heart tissue becomes viscous, which may lead to chest pain, weakness, severe case of heart arrest. Due to recent medical technology rapid development, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the average life expectancy is now approaching the General population lifetime, but if not timely treatment, will lead to life-threatening situations.

but the future one day, we may be able through gene editing to completely cure this disease. The 2017 summer season, the Oregon health and Science University scientists use CRISPR technology to remove can birth a human embryo is a defect gene, this study of scientists has brought hope. They are in the embryo after fertilization within 18 hours of injection combined with CRISPR-Cas9 technology mechanism 54 embryos, of which 36 embryos did not show any mutations in fact no form of this disease, and 13 embryo section does not appear mutation(genetic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with a probability of 50 per cent.

in the 54 embryos in only 13 non-target gene mutation and Chimera(mosaics, chimeras refers to the number of cells undergone a corresponding change, means that a small number of people will be genetic variants. p>

In order to further reduce these changes, the researchers conducted another experiment, they in embryos fertilized directly on the embryo in the same gene were corrected. The results found that only a Chimera, which is an impressive experimental results. So this study than other similar studies more valid 2015 Chinese scientists conducted a clinical trial, can not eliminate the Chimera of the possibility of it.

The study first author, Oregon health and Science University researcher Shukla King? Mitalipov(Shoukhrat Mitalipov said:“by using this technology, we may mitigate this genetic disease on families the burden of, and ultimately affect all humanity.” In embryonic development the early stages of discovery of this gene may reduce or eliminate the lives of patients post-treatment needs.

although some stem cell scientists doubt whether this dozens of mutations in real and effective, but this study helps scientists better understand the CRISPR technology effectiveness. In addition, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy study co-authors, we are interested in this technology applied to reduce the risk of breast cancer specific gene mutation(BRCA1 and BRCA2 in.

This means that scientists know about changing human embryo genetic code that might have unintended consequences, if the CRISPR technology in the wrongThe place has been modified, changed or removed the health of the gene? This patient will have what impact?

some parts of the world, such as: China, scientists can to a large extent unfettered of human embryos for experiments, but in the United States, Canada and the UK, the situation is not so.

in the United States, the current food and Drug Administration and does not consider the use of public funds to research those that can be inherited genes, the Oregon researchers of the research work is not the graft for the purpose of the research is privately funded it. In Canada, edited gene to the offspring, is a crime, the maximum sentence can be sentenced to 10 years in prison. In the UK, in 2016, the human fertilization and embryo authority in London a team of scientists access to edit the human embryonic genes of the license, the UK scientists hope that this will become a precedent, and open the future of gene editing applications in the door.

2, the CRISPR technology can eliminate disease-causing microbes

although HIV treatment is infection from the deadly killer virus into the state of health, but scientists still have not found effective solutions. This situation may be with the CRISPR technology development and change, by 2017, China A Study Group by copying a variation of the gene, effectively blocking viral entry into cells, thereby increasing the rat of HIV resistance. Currently, scientists only in the animal body to perform such experiments, but there is reason to believe that the same method is also applicable to humans, this mutation can enhance the human for HIV immunity.

2018 7 January, and the other gene editing experiments will conduct in China, and will try to use CRISPR technology to destroy the human papillary tumor virus(HPV)gene, and effectively destroy the virus, it is reported that the human papillary tumor virus has been shown to cause cervical cancer tumor growth.

in a slightly different experiment, USA North Carolina scientists use CRISPR technology to the design of the phage, which is a bacterial infection and replicate itself the virus, thereby killing harmful bacteria. Since the 20th century, 20 years, phage has been used in clinical trials, the treatment of bacterial infections. But by natural way to capture them is very difficult, because at that time the lack of phage cognitive, and unpredictable results, at the same time, the antibiotic market continues to grow so that phage application gradually unpopular.

even today, some researchers still worry that they think a large number of phage invades the human body will elicit an immune response, or lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria to the phage resistant, otherwise it will destroy them.

although human trials have not yet begun, but researchers to use CRISPR technology to the design of phage remain optimistic attitude, because they are a proven, safe treatment bacterial infections methods. In fact, in 2017 one experiment, the researchers used CRISPR technology to the design of phage to rescue infection of antibiotic-resistant infectious diseases of the mouse life.

3, the CRISPR technology can revive some of the species

2017 2 December, Harvard geneticist George Church George Church in the United States for the advancement of Science Association annual meeting, issued a surprising statement, said he led the research team and in two years time will be able to successfully breed an elephant-mammoth hybrid embryos.

The Church in the acceptance of “new scientist” magazine reporter the interview said:“I want to restore the hairy mammoth is able to stop the global climate warming, the mammoth need the tundra living environment, the land there was thick snow and cold air.”

currently, Church and his team hope to use the CRISPR technology will be the Asian elephant, a potential is to save the endangered species and the mammoth genetic material together, the mammoth’s genetic material sample is provided by the Siberian frozen hairballs ball in the DNA extraction. By adding mammoth genes into Asian elephant body, eventually the organism will have a mammoth of universal features, for example: long hair, in cold climates can play a warm effect. The ultimate goal is to move this to the hybridization of the embryo implanted in an elephant body, and nurture to the delivery period.

this study is quite promising, but some experts believe that the Church’s time schedule is too optimistic. Even if the research��Personnel to cultivate a fully functional hybrid embryos, like he expected that, in a man-made womb growth and development, is still a need to overcome the obstacles. Of course, the Church lab is now able to in the artificial womb to nurture a pregnancy, half of the mice embryos, about development about 10 days. But there is no guarantee of future within a few years to be able to witness the mammoth’s birth.

4, the CRISPR technology can nurture a healthier new food

The CRISPR gene editing technique is demonstrated in the agricultural research field with the development of future, New York, USA Cold Spring Harbor laboratory scientists use CRISPR tools it is possible to increase tomato production, the laboratory developed a method to be able to edit genes, to determine the tomato’s size, branching structure, and the maximum yield when tomato shape.

Cold Spring Harbor laboratory Zachary Lippman(Zachary Lippman Professor in a press release that the crop of each can be characterized in a lamp dimmer switch control is performed, now we can use the native DNA, enhancing its natural properties, it will help us to break the yield barriers.

satisfy the hunger of the crowd of high-yielding crops is only a beginning, scientists hope CRISPR technology can help to get rid of genetically modified organisms(GMOs)“dirt”. 2016, DuPont pioneer agricultural science and Technology Company claimed that the latest development of a new breed of CRISPR gene editing corn, because the researchers changed its genes, so technically, it is not genetically modified crops.

genetically modified organisms and genetically edited crops the difference between a very simple, traditional GMOs is through the implantation of foreign DNA sequences into the corn gene, delivery of its characteristics or properties to the future of organic creatures. Gene editing than this technique is more precise: it is this Foundation because of the group of the special position of the gene for accurate change, and often destroy certain genes or change their location, these are not the introduction of foreign DNA.

although the GMOs in the consumer there is a dispute between, but DuPont pioneer and other companies to better understand gene editing food. It is reported that GMOs in the U.S. market has been in existence for decades, scientists have not detected any risk, despite the genetically modified organisms of the largest supporters recognized, scientists are still unclear of all of the long-term risks.

The CRISPR technology to edit the crop is also true, of course, scientists will continue to test and assess these crops, and thus ensure that no cases of unanticipated side effects, but this early research still has great development prospects. In the end, the CRISPR technology to edit the crop is likely to quickly occupy the global market.

DuPont pioneer agricultural science and technology the company hopes by 2020 to its“waxy”gene editing of corn into the U.S. market, it is learned, a gene editing mushrooms have bypassed the United States Department of Agriculture States that it does not contain from the virus or bacteria of the foreign DNA, and became the first green light of the CRISPR technology to edit the organism. Sweden has now announced that it will be for the CRISPR technology to edit, crop classification and regulation, which method is different from GMO, but the European Commission has not yet selected its position.

5, the CRISPR technology will eradicate the earth of the most dangerous pests

like the CRISPR gene editing technology can be directed against infectious diseases, but some researchers have decided to through the Elimination of its mode of transmission to reduce the spread of disease diffusion. University of California, Riverside, UCLA scientists have bred a mosquito, they are for the CRISPR technology to produce very sensitive to changes, which will facilitate the scientists unprecedented control is passed to the offspring of the biological genetic characteristics. Research results show that by changing the eyes, wings, and cuticle development of the gene, and ultimately bred out of the body yellow, three eye, wingless mosquitoes.

by disrupting the mosquito gene position of a plurality of target genes, the research team is testing a“gene-drive system”, to inherit the delivery of these inhibitory features. Gene drive is a essentially ensure that the genetic characteristics can be inherited the way, by weakening the mosquito’s flight ability and vision, University of California, Riverside campus, scientists hope to significantly reduce Mosquito on Human spread of dangerous infectious diseases, the ability to, for example: dengue and yellow fever.

other researchers by blocking the mosquito breeding capacity of trying to destroy them in 2016, London��State Institute of technology a group of researchers to use CRISPR technology to study the malaria-carrying female mosquitoes of breeding mode, by the gene-drive system affecting female infertility characteristics that make the feature more likely to be passed on to future generations.

but the interference of the mosquito population might bring unexpected results, the eradication of a species, even a seemingly without much ecological value of the species, but also will destroy the ecosystem’s delicate balance. This may have disastrous consequences, such as: the destruction of the food chain or increase in malaria and other diseases in a completely different composition between the spread of diffusion.

the CRISPR technology of the future

currently advanced science and technology showed that CRISPR technology is not only a role of a very wide range of technology, is also confirmed to have very high accuracy, and can be used safely. But many of the scientific and technological progress is only just beginning, like CRISPR-Cas9 this gene editing technology has ample potential to be tapped.

technical and ethical obstacles is the future of gene editing technology must be properly faced, and we need to grow genetically modified crops to improve yield, eliminate genetic diseases, or the resurrection of some extinct species, but we are moving forward on the road. (Leaf Allure

Published at Mon, 05 Feb 2018 04:05:33 +0000

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