Posted by on March 24, 2018 6:49 am
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Source: the CRISPR gene editing technique how to change the future of Cancer Research

2018 3 May 23, news /bio Valley BIOON/ –CRISPR gene editing technology in cancer research has made significant achievements. Compared to the previous traditional techniques, CRISPR allows scientists to be more efficient for gene editing, which not only can help explain many of the biological problems, but also having treatment of a variety of disease potential.

(image source: Cancer Research UK)
with the advent of the CRISPR technology has become more sophisticated, many previously did not dare to think the problem are likely to achieve, such as reanimated dinosaurs, or the design of the newborn’s genome.

however, stations in the more practical angle, CRISPR is able to help us step by step to solve basic science problems.

the huge jumps
CRISPR great potential so that we through gene editing treatment of diseases of this vision is full of longing. Theoretically, this means that we are able to Mature in the human, embryo or sperm cells carry out gene editing. However, from a practical perspective, the entire human body to edit the current view or very difficult, compared to a few specific cells editing, you can under laboratory conditions to achieve, it also has significant practical significance. For this case, we were able to have a quick ability to divide cells for gene editing, then through cell division can be edited after the traits passed on to all progeny cells.

but for editing of human embryos early cell genome to say, there are some ethical issues, and therefore was part of the opposition.

however, the fact that the CRISPR technology for the treatment of a particular cancer, it is of great significance. This is due to the occurrence of cancer is accompanied by a large number of DNA mutation accumulation caused by, For each cancer-causing mutation, while there are many mutations do not affect cancer risk.

find the cause of cancer the occurrence of mutations is not an easy thing, and only a portion of cancer and genetic mutations are closely related, this is referred to as”causes of mutations germline mutations)”。 Even for the root causes of mutation, each individual mutation is only will increase cancer risks, was not”Yes”or”No”is so absolute.

“CRISPR technology precisely means that if the patient is the presence of the root causes of mutation, and is likely therefore to suffer from cancer of the haul, then it is possible by targeted correction of the mutation to prevent the occurrence of cancer”, from the London Institute of Cancer Research clinical scientist Irene Chong said. Although she for currently the method in the treatment of cancer aspects of reality out of doubt, but she thinks the technology in the future will contribute to familial cancer prevention and treatment.

CRISPR how to cure cancer?

thanks to the basic medical researchers a step by step effort.

our genes are composed of DNA, through RNA-mediated final form proteins. The protein is within the cell’s”workers”, they participated in a wide variety of complex and important work.

“so far, we can by drugs or medicine means targeting the inhibition of the activity of the protein, as well as by siRNA targeting inhibitory RNA molecule activity”, from Newcastle University’s Professor Olaf Heidenreich said.” CRISPR technology allows us to directly target the DNA, and change its sequence and genetic information”。

since many of the genes in the DNA errors accumulate will eventually lead to cancer, these errors will affect the function of the protein, allowing the cells to become more dangerous, flee control for growth and invasion of other tissues.

“found mediated by these processes of critical genes and lead to cancerous mutations for understanding the occurrence of cancer and development of therapeutic drugs have an important role”, from London’s Royal College of breast cancer experts Simak Ali and Professor says.

CRISPR is a very powerful technology, it is able to sugar the scientists for a single gene to make precise edits, which can under laboratory conditions in cancer cells, knockout of any gene, and study of these genes function��Are is what.

“in human-derived cancer cells for gene knockout and replacement in the past of view is very inefficient,”Ali said, but CRISPR technology it is possible to make it become more convenient and fast.

based on CRISPR technology, scientists were able to the normal gene replacement of mutated cancer genes, in order to study these genes individually to change the cells cancerous, thus the design of targeted therapy.

the new technology of”strong-strong combination”
the best research for cancer is to the patient as the object, but now also not too realistic. Therefore, researchers have to spend enormous effort to prove that laboratory results conform to the real situation.

“organ class”is the cells into a 3D structure, making it more consistent with the real conditions of the organ structure, rather than the traditional Petri dish environment of the cell.

recently, from the Netherlands, researchers use CRISPR technology to repair the cancer cells in the two deletion mutant of the gene. In the organ class as the research object, and knockout said two oncogenes, the authors view to reproduce the gastric cancer occurrence and progression, which in previous studies is difficult to achieve.

“based on the CRISPR technology as well as the organ class culture technology, we are able to Accurately reproduce the patient mutations accumulated in the process,”the authors of the study Jarno Drost Dr. said.

in addition, although we already know many genes affect cancer cell growth, division and proliferation process, but CRISPR is able to help us Find more.” CRISPR technology can help us to identify which genes affecting cancer drug resistance, thereby helping us to cancer patients for targeted drug therapy”, Ali says.

“gene interactions”to bring trouble
in the reveal new cancer genes at the same time, researchers have found some genes between the two the presence of interaction effects the relationship. If the cancer cells carry a mutation, then the cell would depend on another gene to maintain growth. Thus, by drugs that inhibit the gene interactions will be able to effectively kill cancer cells. This idea is referred to as”synthetic lethal”, has been used for a particular cancer patient’s treatment. Ovarian cancer drug olaparib can be targeted to carry the BRCA genetic mutation of cancer cells, these cancer cells rely on PARP for normal growth, and olaparib it is possible to inhibit the latter’s activity.

under laboratory conditions to verify the above point of view is not easy, but with the advent of the CRISPR technology of the popularity, we are able to quickly find thousands of gene combinations and select the one of the most effective for targeted inhibition.

however, the above-described gene interaction phenomenon in different cancer types may involve different genes, and therefore the need for different types of cancer have different treatment options.

the CRISPR technology itself over the past several years gene editing technology advances, and more recently their”upgrade version”also to speed up the arrival of the footsteps.

the CRISPR technology sometimes there will be off-target phenomenon, and therefore we hope that the new version can improve its accuracy. In addition, since the CRISPR molecular weight is too large, not too adapt to by viral transfection of the means for gene therapy, and therefore the need to develop more small-molecule machine.

by current CRISPR technology is corrected, the scientists were able to make CRISPR play a large function.

in short, the CRISPR although not the ultimate solution, but can help us study the past can not contact the domain. Science is always expanding the known boundaries, and for unknown areas to explore. (生物谷
1. Woolly mammoth on the verge of resurrection, scientists reveal
2. US scientists back gene editing but warn against ‘designer babies’
3. Take stock of research ethics in human genome editing
4. Editing the human genome brings us one step closer to consumer eugenics
5. CRISPR fixes disease gene in viable human embryos
6. Second Chinese team reports gene editing in human embryos
7. DNA editing in human embryos reveals the role of fertility ‘master gene’
8. John Paul Shen et al. Combinatorial CRISPR-Cas9 screens for de novo mapping of genetic interactions. Nature Methods. (2017) doi:10.1038/nmeth. 4225
9. Authors retract controversial NgAgo gene-editing study

Published at Mon, 24 Mar 2018 06:51:00 +0000

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