Posted by on April 27, 2018 1:04 am
Categories: Baidu

Source: again science CRISPR:what is CRISPR gene editing? How to apply?

before that may be you have read through the use of gene editing technologyCRISPRalso known asThe CRISPR/Cas9to study the relevant reports. The scientific community are in for this revolutionary technology fascinated because of it and before theDNAthe transformation of means compared to the cheaper, inexpensive and efficient.

CRISPR/Cas9this term representsclustered regularly spaced short palindromic repeatThe Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic installed or support, theCRISPR/CRISPRrelated protein9”。 This name reflects it is initially found when the showed the important features, but does not explain how it works, because it people know what it is before it is named.


CRISPR/Cas9is in the bacteria found in a participation of the immune defense system. Bacteria use theCRISPR/Cas9cut off the viral invader(phage of theDNA, to prevent yourself from being phage kill.

today, we have this molecular machine to a completely different object in the direction makeoverfor change within the organismDNAcode in any one of the selected bases.

we will want to correct due to heredity or replication errors generated by the pathogenic gene. Or in some cases, we will want to enhance crops, livestock, and even human genetic code.

so whether we just don’t want the gene cut, and then with a good gene to replace?

first we have to remember that animals and plants are made up of thousands of cells, each cell containing the sameDNA。 Just edit one of the cells is meaningless: we have to edit every cell in the same gene. We need to cut the thousands of genes and then stick on the thousands of new genes.

and, not all the cells are easy to get intohow we touched those buried in the bone or inside the brain cells?

a better way is the life of birth at the start of this work, when only one cellearly embryos when it is carried out genome editing.

therefore, we just need a giant microscope and a tiny scissors. This is basically what we use.

Cas9bacteria evolve out of the destruction of the virus ofscissorsthe technical name.CRISPRindicated by the generation of RepeatDNAthe sequence is a composite of another part of the system, it will tell scissors to SNiPDNAof which part.

find, cut, and paste

to makeCas9scissors capable of precise positioning, we associate it with the manual guide chain, the guide chain is capable of guidingCas9to match theDNAthefragment.

remember,DNAthere are two chains, two chains with each other pairing. We produced the guide Strand with the coding only with the30billion of these base pairs long genome of a part of the pairjust like Google search. Our guide chain can indeed be Grooming large amounts of genetic material, which found that the precise pairing of a segment. Thus, ourscissorsbe in the correct position of the shear.

onceCas9scissors in our desired location on the cut.DNArecipient, the cells will use any availableDNAclip to fix the broken chain. Therefore, we will also inject new want to insert the geneDNAthefragment.

you can use the microscope and microscopic syringe together with injectedCRISPR/Cas9and the guide Strand and the donorDNAthe new genes on. Alternatively, you can use the current cell perforated to allow these material flows, the use of the gun will be adhered to with these substances of small beads into the cell, or through the capsule of the method they are introducedwith lipid vesicles wrapped, when vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane will release the contents.

but the new genes how to find the right place to embed it? Imagine you’re from30billion blocks to find a piece to fill the puzzle with the last piece, and is in a cell, like passion fruit as flooded with slimy things.

you will do is make a piece with the notch conforms to the shape of the Tangram, and inject it into the passion fruit. So, you just need to shake the passion fruit until this piece of the jigsaw puzzle to find it is to fill the site and only inserted in it should be inserted.

you don’t need a microscope to see the genomeDNA–they are too small. You also do not need to shakerandom diffusion, known as Brownian motion final total will be the piece of jigsaw puzzle to fit it’s position.

first, the guide Strand will be shaking a find a suitable location to let the scissors SNiP, after a new donorDNA��Similarly arranged in a suitable position and byDNArepair mechanisms are permanently sewn onDNAchain.

recently, however,newdevelopment< /a>ofCRISPRedit systemalready need notDNAshear. In this case,CRIPSR/Casand boot the system the enzyme may be delivered to specific location and change the genes, such as theAgoesGorCintoT, rather thanDNAchain cut then mend a new clip into it.

we useCRIPSR/Cas9do?

licensemany experiments using the similar blood in the culture medium of mouse embryos or cells. Other researchers transform stem cells, these stem cells after the transformation is re-injected into the patient and re-transplanted to the damaged organs.

the world only a few laboratory true in the study of human early embryos. Such studies are highly regulated and closely watched. There are some people the study of plant cells because of the complete plant by only a few cells.

with the awareness of the depth,CRISPR/Cas9you can use the field more widely. We can do a lot of things, but each organism and each cell is different. Moreover, the body everything is interconnected, we have to take into account unexpected side effects, and from an ethical perspective on genetic modification. Especially we, as a society as a whole, it should be discussed and we hope to achieve the target agreement.


author:Merlin Crossley

(translator: Wang Yi Jingreviewer: GU Jin Tao)

original link:

Published at Mon, 27 Apr 2018 01:04:25 +0000

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