Posted by on May 2, 2018 3:58 pm
Categories: Baidu

Source: tech Quick Guide series“gene editing CRISPR”:history, present and future

editor’s note: wired magazine published a series of articles to introduce the latest technology and network culture. This is the CRISPR article, author MEGAN MOLTENI is. By 36 krypton compile.

in gene editing technology in the early days, biologists have a similar printer molecule Toolbox. That is, the gene is loaded into the used to bind the target cells of the virus, changing the DNA is a messy, labor intensive process. It involves not only a large number of disciplines intersect. Today, scientists have like Microsoft Word as a tool, they can begin to like software engineers modify the code as easily as editing DNA. In the end is what facilitated this transition for? We call 2012 the Crispr earth shock.

if you ask“Crispr is what?” To put it simply, this is a revolutionary new molecular tools, scientists can use it for precise positioning and cutting of any kind of genetic material. The Crispr system is the scientists to manipulate the earth any creature(including human)life password the fastest, easiest and cheapest method.

the complexity point, the Crispr represents a cluster of regular interval-type of Repeat. The Crispr system consists of a sequence of shear capacity of the protein and genetic GPS navigation composition. This system in the bacterial Kingdom natural evolution out, as the memory and the defense of the invasion of the virus in a way. But researchers recently found that they can re-use the original immune system to precisely alter the genome, causing billions of dollars of DNA hacking craze.

every industry in the Crispr invest a lot of money-the pharmaceutical, agriculture, energy, materials and manufacturing. Even those marijuana traffickers who are trying to drop money into it. These companies are utilizing it to manufacture a cure for cancer, the fight against climate change crop, oozing biofuel algae and self-termination of the mosquito. Academic researchers almost universally use Crispr to gain a deeper understanding of the model organisms of Biology. To support this bio-hackers feast is an increasingly crowded Crispr rear end of the supply chain; enterprises to establish a gene editor design tools and transport synthetic guide RNA, or Crispr prior of the cell lines to these company’s doors. However, so far, only a few of the Crispr enhancement products can actually enter into the consumer’s hands. Instead, the exaggerated headlines and provoked society on the technology of Hope and fear, from saving endangered species to trigger Super baby in the arms race.

in the short term, Crispr is not the end of disease, hunger or climate change. Maybe never. The designer also does not change the child’s genes or the Commission of a gene extinction of sin. (But start talking about such a powerful technology may bring ethical dilemmas, never too early.) However, Crispr has begun to less radical way to reshape our surrounding physical world, once a base pairs.

CRISPR history

This is from the yogurt. In order to produce yogurt, the dairy products manufacturer has long been the use of thermophilic Streptococcus( streptoccus thermophilus )to provide help. Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the swallowed milk lactose side by side out of the lactic acid bacteria. However, until 2005, a man named Rudolf Baran ancient(Rodolphe Barrangou young microbiologist was found that the Streptococcus thermophilus contained in the strange repeat DNA sequence fragments–Crisprs, these sequences guarantee a thermophilic Streptococcus from those that can lead to the destruction of viruses. (If thermophilic bacteria is gone, the nasal bacteria( nastier bacteria will enter therein, to lactose for food, destruction of the product.)

soon, DuPont acquired Balaam the ancient working for the Danish company, and began to use Crispr to protect all of its yogurt and cheese cultures. Since DuPont owns the global dairy market the 50% share, which means that you may have been in the pizza eat to the Crispr optimization of the cheese.

at the same time, gene sequencing costs plummet, scientists around the world are assembled bacterial genome. As they do that��, They found that Crisprs are found everywhere–more than half of the bacterial Kingdom have Crisprs with. Typically, these sequence is flanked by a set of encoding of a class of known as endonuclease cut chain enzyme genes. Scientists suspect that they were involved in this original immune system, but what exactly is going on?

The key insight from a particularly nasty bacteria which can cause throat discomfort. It is the Crispr system to produce two RNA sequences, both RNA sequence is connected to a called Cas9 clam-shaped endonuclease. Just like genetic GPS, these sequence of the enzyme was oriented with RNA sequence complementary to the DNA chain. When it arrives there, the Cas9 changed the shape, grab the DNA and cut it into two halves. To make this discovery of the molecular biologist Jennifer Dudley, Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Xia Peng pedicle, Emmanuelle Charpentier in 2012 with the journal Science published their on bacteria research. But in this technology as the genetic engineering of a tool to obtain a patent before, it is impossible to achieve. If you switch RNA navigation, you can put the Cas9 sent to any place-say, the cause of Huntington’s disease gene cut down. They realized that Crispr will be a molecular biology home of the warp speed engine.

six months later, the Massachusetts Institute of technology and Harvard University, a man named Zhang Feng of molecular biologists in science magazine published a paper, demonstrating Crispr – Cas9 is how to edit human cells. In fact, with the right gene Navigator, you can almost make anything become Criss-Cross. This means that it may be used to develop next-generation drugs, these drugs can eliminate genetic defects, and enhance the body of cancer’s natural defenses. This means that a large amount of money.

you can also anticipate a patent dispute will follow, still continues. Crispr pioneers created three exclusive licenses of the company, the use of Crispr / Cas9 to the treatment of human diseases; the first batch of clinical trials is expected in 2018 in the United States began. About who will eventually own the technology uncertainty is almost no slow people on the Crispr desires. If anything, it’s that it sparked the development of competing and adjacent tools of interest, these tools is expected to further improve and expand the Crispr’s potential.

CRISPR in the future.

for now, the Crispr is still a biologist buzzwords. But just like a computer from a tedious, specifically for the math lovers design tools evolved into our body everywhere, invisible extends as Crispr will one day be seamlessly woven into our reality structure. If it’s just a biological problem, the problem can easily be solved.

an industrial fermentation, for example. In old-fashioned genetic engineering technology, scientists have E. coli and brewer’s yeast and other microorganisms, re-programming to be produced from insulin to ethanol and other substances of the plant. Crispr the rapidly expanding bio-refineries that can produce the design of chemical, molecular and materials directory. Self-healing concrete? Fire, plant-based, than aluminum but also lightweight construction materials? Completely biodegradable plastic? Crispr is not only to make all of these become possible, but also makes mass production of them as possible.

however, we now have the tools cannot achieve this goal. This is why researchers are now competing to draw more clearly the Crispr the world the whole picture. At this moment, he they are global within the scope of the search fuzzy bacterial sequences, they are patching have already found the system. They each encounter a promising new nucleic acid enzyme of the patent in the next ten years, this list will surely expand. Each new enzyme would not only improve Crispr’s gene editing capabilities, but also its ability to extend far beyond DNA can handle the range. You see, the slicing and cutting is not against the DNA can do only interesting things. The new Crispr system can temporarily switch gene switch or the monitoring of the genome in order to repair mutations, because they are real-time, so no need to shear. The first method allows scientists not permanently change the patient the case of DNA, the treatment of certain substances(such as insulin)levels are too high or too low of human diseases. The second method is to have a day can prevent cancer and other diseases���Happen. Crispr features, probably more than it is the actual cutting mechanism, which will stimulate the we can’t imagine the applications.

at the same time, consumers will soon see the first batch of Crispr products appear on grocery store shelves. Since Crispr is not the use of plant viruses to manipulate DNA, the U.S. Department of agriculture on gene-edited crops given free of regulatory license that allows drought-resistant soybean and super-starch corn for your favorite processed foods. Featured fruits and vegetables are likely to follow the commodity crops; regulatory burden reduction and Crispr cheap will enable the company to attract the consumer’s senses, rather than the farmer’s bottom line into the market. There have been more than a dozen startups have emerged to challenge Bayer, Monsanto, Dow, DuPont and pioneer in the world.

The Crispr technology of democratization, coupled with its almost unlimited business possibilities, so that today is becoming a birthright of the sub-biologists a great time. Want to manufacture only for harmful bacteria and do not destroy the entire microbial group of antibiotics? Some companies are doing it. Want to make doctor can be used to detect dengue and walled card diseases diseases like paper diagnosis? There are also research labs and startups are doing it. With more tools on the line, the rear end of the Crispr ecosystem will continue to expand to support, deliver, and optimize these tools.

Crispr applications will only become more powerful, when at that point, they face more scrutiny and regulation. We have to figure out whether you can, in order to protect the name of the eradication of entire species, and other species from extinction, save it. We have to face gene editing tools may be used to manufacture the unfathomable biological possibilities. Yes, we will eventually have to talk about the design of the baby; when will I be able to repair the gene mutation in? Whether we will start adding features? Where do we draw the line for? Crispr, and one day will constitute the Crispr-world all the Tools, No doubt will force society-not just scientists-to face these questions, think about one of the oldest problems; as human beings means what?

One More Thing: the 3 Non-gene editing CRISPR cases the diagnosis of the disease.

the virus works is to put your cell into which the DNA of a small plant. A based on the Crispr test from a drop of blood, a saliva or a drop of urine extracted out of the source DNA, and in a few minutes to tell you your body whether the zika virus infection, dengue fever or yellow fever.

crop resistance to disease.

every year, the fungus wiped out a third of the crops. Crispr can identify the most serious“violators”, which helps the farmers in the crops the occurrence of Fusarium wilt occurred prior to salvage harvest.

against antibiotics resistance

due to excessive use, the world’s antibiotics are losing effectiveness. In Crispr-based new drug, only for harmful bacteria, you can keep the microbial population complete, helps fight antibiotic resistance.

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Published at Wed, 02 May 2018 15:59:13 +0000

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